Estudios de Lingüística Aplicada


Hispanic social placenames of Manila


Toponimia hispánica social de Manila

Marco Antonio Joven Romero

Universidad Nacional de Educacióna Distancia (uned)

Hanoi University (hanu)

Recepción del artículo: 14 de abril de 2021

Aceptación: 24 de agosto de 2021

doi: 10.22201/enallt.01852647p.2022.74.997


Place names mirror the social history of a territory, the daily life, and the relations of its settlers. Hispanic historical social place names in Manila depict the urban society during the colonial period. In the following pages, I gather and explain the living Hispanic toponyms coined before the 1945 Manila battle and discuss the different activities, peoples, and economic classes they depict. I conclude that different areas were prone to administrative, financial, leisure, military, nonprofit, rural, transport, and working-class activities: the distance to Intramuros, the core of the historical city, witnessed their relevance.

Keywords: Filipiniana; Hispanic Asia; history of Manila; metro Manila; toponymy


Los topónimos reflejan la historia social de los territorios, su vida diaria y las relaciones de sus habitantes. Los topónimos históricos hispánicos en Manila dibujan la sociedad de la ciudad durante el periodo colonial. Aquí reúno y explico los topónimos hispánicos vivos acuñados antes de la batalla de Manila de 1945 y discuto las distintas actividades, pueblos y clases económicas que retratan. Concluyo que en distintas zonas de la ciudad predominaban actividades administrativas, financieras, de ocio, militares, de beneficencia, rurales, logísticas y de clases obreras: la distancia al centro en Intramuros denotaba su relevancia.

Palabras clave: Asia hispánica; Filipiniana; historia de Manila; metro Manila; toponimia

1. Introduction


The historical City of Manila comprises an area of 42.88 km2; it was home to 1,780,148 inhabitants in 2015 (Philippine Statistics Authority, 2016). It is one of the cities that currently form the National Capital Region of the Philippines, popularly known as Metro Manila, including a total of 16 cities and one municipality, spreading over 619.57 km2, with a population size of more than 12.8 million inhabitants in 2015 (Philippine Statistics Authority, 2016) and over 14 million inhabitants in 2021. These cities and the municipality comprise an urban continuum that extends over the surrounding provinces, harboring more than 25 million persons and being one of the largest metropolitan areas worldwide (Demographia, 2022: 23). In 1903, the historical City of Manila was home to 219,928 inhabitants, and Metro Manila had a population of 330,345 inhabitants (Stinner & Bacol-Montilla, 1981: 8).

The Philippines was under Spanish colonial rule between 1571 and 1898 after previous expeditions. Manila was founded by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1571 subsequent to prior settlements influenced by local peoples, Hokkien Chinese traders, and the Sultanate of Brunei. The Hispanic influence in Manila started in the second half of the 16th century and lasted until World War II, after the American rule over the Philippines began in 1898. The Spanish occupation of previous settlements and urban growth until the late 19th century introduced a vast number of Hispanic place names, with some previous names being preserved (Lesho & Sippola, 2018; Quilis & Casado-Fresnillo, 2008).

In general, place names are coined according to social or geographic reasons. The latter usually describes the territory’s physical characteristics — e.g., Binondo (Tagalog Language Binundók: hilly terrain), Estero (Spanish Language: channel). Social reasons are multiple and more complex. Sometimes place names refer to working activities and guilds, influential people, religious entities, military buildings, and others. Quilis and Casado-Fresnillo (2008) offer the following taxonomy for Spanish place names in urban areas of the Philippines: names of saints; Spanish countries and cities; historical figures; historical dates; persons related to arts and sciences; relevant persons in the Philippine society, including their first names and family name, or only either of these two; flowers and plants; animals; abstact names; guilds and work activities; common names or adjectives; geographic places, poetic names, and commercial names (544–550).

Here I analyze the preserved Hispanic place names indicating social activities before the 1945 Manila’s battle. These place names are currently used and describe continuous social activities in the past. They do not refer to specific events or moments, eponyms, epithets given to specific personalities or figures, private non-social entities, or virtues with no direct relation to the area. They are classified according to the following categories: Financial, Leisure, Military, Nonprofit, Another social function, Public Administration, Rural, Transport, and Working-class. Note that Working-class refers to work activities different from financial, military, administrative, and rural. Transport refers to the most relevant mobility places and infrastructure, such as avenues, passages, terminals, and stations. Another Social Function includes metaphorical names depicting the social life in the area (e.g., Hormiga), police stations, private entities with a social function, relevant event venues or meeting points, representative social buildings, supply infrastructure, and names depicting the social-urban nature of the area (e.g., Mestizo, Población, Visita). Some place names are classified into different categories; for example, ‘Revellín del Parián’ is classified as Military (Revellín) and Working-Class (Parián). For the introduction, explanation, and analysis, I maintain the most popular or official spelling even if it does not meet the Spanish normative.

Toponyms coined according to previous places in Metro Manila with no direct historical, social, or territorial relationship are not considered; for example, ‘Muralla Street’ in ‘New Intramuros Village’ (Coordinates: 14.669942, 121.071954). Similarly, historical names with no direct relationship with social life and group activities in the territory are not addressed in this study, even when some of these places were and still are popular in the city (e.g., Ermita, Ermitaño, Paco). Names preserved in English are also not listed (e.g., ‘Paco Park and Cemetery’, previously ‘Cementerio de Paco’ or ‘Cementerio General de Dilao’), nor are place names coined from virtues in Spanish in 1911, one year after the Suppressed Nationalism Era (Ira & Medina, 1977: 153): Alegría (happiness), Constancia (constancy), Economía (economy), Firmeza (firmness), Honradez (honesty), Lealtad (loyalty), Pureza (purity), Reposo (rest), Silencio (silence), Sobriedad (sobriety), Sosiego (peace of mind), Trabajo (work), Verdad (truth).

In the following sections, I discuss the quantitative preservation of historical social place names according to the above categories. I also depict some spatial patterns around Intramuros, the core of the historical city, illustrating that the preserved Hispanic toponyms in Manila depict social life and the social evolution of the city and supporting that the more powerful a social group was, the closer to Intramuros it was located.

An outline of each place name is also offered, first considering the name itself and then the functions and historical evolution of said place. For instance, ‘Casa Asilo de Nuestra Señora de la Consolación de Mandaloya’ is currently an educational institution that was originally an asylum, as the place name suggests, so it is analyzed as an asylum. The list provided herein is based on the information on contemporary Hispanic place names in Metro Manila gathered from 803 surveys and my own fieldwork between 2017 and 2020. Data have been contrasted with Manila’s 1898, 1920, and 1934 maps (De Gamoneda, 1898; Bach, 1920; Young Men’s Christian Association, 1934) and the books Streets of Manila (Ira & Medina, 1977) and Daluyan: A Historical Dictionary of the Streets of Manila (National Historical Institute (Philippines) [NHIP], 2006). Additional sources are conveniently cited and referenced, and other contemporary tools offer further support (Adkranz, 2014; GoogleMaps, n.d.; Jersey, 2011). Some publications provide more general information and clues (Doeppers, 2016; Gealogo, 2011; Lesho & Sippola, 2018; Medina, 1992; Quilis & Casado-Fresnillo, 2008; Reed, 1978).

In Section 2. Analysis, I outline the results according to the social nature of place names, preservation statistics, and location patterns. In Section 3. Conclusions, I highlight the key conclusions. In Appendix A. Style Guidelines, I describe the style used for the list of place names, explaining each item and offering as much information as possible in the easiest way. In Appendix B. List of Place Names, all the preserved Hispanic historical social place names are listed, including a total of 183 entries. To note, some places have been classified under more than one category, resulting in 199 items included. These names were contrasted with other sources (Bach, 1920; De Gamoneda, 1898; Ira & Medina, 1977; National Historical Institute (Philippines), 2006; Young Men’s Christian Association, 1934). Appendix C. Maps, includes three charts to facilitate data interpretation: 1898 De Gamoneda’s map, 1934 Young Men’s Christian Association’s map, and Metro Manila’s administrative map (Adkranz, 2014).


2. Analysis


There are 183 Hispanic historical social place names currently preserved in Manila, from a total of 199 items considered. The difference between the number of place names and the sum of items considered by category derives from some place names being classified under more than one category. Note that place names belonging to a given category but adding some additional linguistic features have been considered separately and included in the 183 historical social items and specific categories. For example, ‘Puerta de Almacenes’, in the ‘Almacenes’ category, has been considered separately as it adds the information about Puerta and the military structure in the Intramuros wall. ‘Fuente de Carriedo’, in Plaza Santa Cruz, has not been considered in the analysis as it left no print in its historical location in Sampaloc.

Of the 199 items considered, there are 61 working-class place names (30.65%), 41 military (20.6%), 21 rural (10.55%), 15 transport (7.54%), 14 public administration and government (7.04%), 10 nonprofit (5.03%), nine financial (4.52%), seven leisure (3.52%), and 21 place names referring to other social functions (10.55%).

There are 61 Hispanic historical working-class place names in Metro Manila. These items are found in Binondo (10), Navotas (6), San Nicolás (6), Quiapo (5), Makati (4), Ermita (3), Malabon (3), Port Area (3), Tondo (3), Caloocan (2), Pandacan (2), Pasig (2), Sampaloc (2), Intramuros, Marikina, Paco, Pasay, Quezon City, Santa Ana, Santa Cruz, Santa Mesa, Taguig, and Valenzuela. Production, distribution, and trading activities were carried out in almost every settlement of the historical Manila region. Intramuros only includes the name Parián, referring to a trading area outside the walls. Binondo, San Nicolas, and Quiapo contain the majority of working-class place names as they were trading and distribution centers for the whole city, with an incipient industry in Binondo — e.g., Soda, Industria, Insular — that gave rise to Manila’s bourgeoisie during the 19th and 20th centuries. Many streets reflect historical guild labors, and all items in Navotas and Port Area refer to fishing and shipping activities. ‘Fuente de Carriedo’ in Plaza Santa Cruz is not considered as it was initially located in Sampaloc and left no toponymical print in its historical location.

There are 41 Hispanic historical military place names in Metro Manila; 32 are located in Intramuros and the rest in Malate (3), San Juan (2), Quezón City, San Nicolas, Tondo, and Valenzuela. Camarilla, in Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City, corresponds to incipient Filipino military activities; Tangke (Tanque: tank) in Valenzuela refers to an episode in the Philippine-American war, and Torre (La Torre, tower) in Tondo corresponds to a pre-Hispanic fortification.

There are 21 Hispanic historical rural place names in Metro Manila, located in Caloocan (3), Las Piñas (3), Quezon City (2), Quiapo (2), Valenzuela (2), Ermita, Makati, Malabon, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Parañaque, Pasig, Pateros, and Tondo. Most are found on the outskirts of historical urban settlements of Metro Manila, except for the items in Quiapo (Escaldo, Quinta), Makati (Casa Hacienda), and Ermita (Provisor). According to Daluyan, Escaldo refers to burned ground (National Historical Institute (Philippines), 2006: 30), although some sources explain the name as referring to candle production to supply the Quiapo church. Quinta and ‘Casa Hacienda’ refer to previous farming country houses adjacent to the Pasig River, and Provisor refers to the distribution of essential goods rather than production. Note that many preserved rural place names on the outskirts of Metro Manila are not Hispanic but Tagalog.

There are 15 Hispanic historical transport place names in Metro Manila spread across the region. They tend to be located on the outskirts of the main historical settlements and refer to terrestrial and aquatic transport. These items are found in Navotas (4), Taguig (2), Tondo (2), Valenzuela (2), Caloocan, Las Piñas, Muntinlupa, Pasay, and Santa Ana. All the place names in Navotas refer to aquatic transport (ferry terminals, Badeo), while some items to the north of the region (Pritil in Tondo, Reparo in Caloocan, ‘Paso de Blas’ and Parada in Valenzuela) depict the transport route to the north of Luzon used during the Spanish period. Note the interesting case of Estación for the train station in Pasay.

There are 14 Hispanic historical place names in Metro Manila related to public administration and political powers. Eleven are located in the historical district of Intramuros, Palacio de cañang in San Miguel, Kapitolyo in Pasig —formerly Rizal Province —, and ‘Casa Consulado’ in Quiapo. Kapitolyo and ‘Casa Consulado’ are related to public administration and political powers after the Spanish rule in the Philippines, while the 11 place names located in Intramuros are related to the Spanish administration.

There are ten Hispanic historical nonprofit place names in Metro Manila. Four are located in Paco, two in Isla de Convalencia (Isla de Convalecencia) — an island in the Pasig River, district of San Miguel, bordering Ermita and Paco —, two in Sampaloc, and one each in Malabon and Mandaluyong. Except for those in Malabon (Asilo de Huerfanos) and Mandaluyong (Casa Asilo de Nuestra Señora de la Consolación de Mandaloya), they are not far from Intramuros. All refer to supporting impoverished people, although ‘Asociación Feminista Filipina’ also pertains to feminist activism.

There are nine Hispanic historical financial place names in Metro Manila. Two located in Intramuros (Aduana, Almacenes) are also related to the administrative and military activities during the Spanish period, while the other seven in Binondo reflect the private activities of the bourgeoisie that became more and more influential on the side of the Pasig River facing Intramuros.

There are seven Hispanic historical leisure place names in Metro Manila. Some of them reflect upper-class leisure options: ‘Casa Tesoro’ (crafts and auction house) in Ermita, Hipódromo (horse racecourse) in Makati and Santa Mesa, and Pancitería (pancit restaurant) in Binondo. Others, distant from Intramuros, depict more popular hobbies: Matadero (cockpit arena) in Malabon, or Pelota (ball game court) in Las Piñas.

Finally, there are 21 elements classified under Another social function. Three refer to event venues or meeting points for different social groups: ‘Casa Katipunero’ in Malabon, ‘Plaza Liga Filipina’ in Tondo, and ‘Casino Español de Manila’ in Ermita. Two refer to stations of the Spanish Civil Gard: ‘Cuartel del Guardia Civil’ in Pasig, and Retén in Sampaloc. Población (Caloocan, Makati, Mandaluyong, Muntinlupa, Pateros, Valenzuela), Visita in Makati, and Divisoria in Tondo describe the social-urban nature of the territory. ‘El Depósito’ and Tuberías refer to the water supply infrastructure built in San Juan during the Spanish period. Mestizo in San Nicolas describes the community living in the area. There are two socially relevant buildings in Santa Ana: Simboryo and Revellin. Malaria in Caloocan suggests that the area has been historically prone to malaria outbreaks, while Hormiga (Binondo) and Quiricada (Santa Cruz) metaphorically describe the busy streets and neighborhoods.

Most administrative and military place names are located in Intramuros — the core of Spanish Manila. Aduana and Almacenes refer to both financial and administrative or military functions, while Parián is the only place name in Intramuros pointing to a different activity. However, this working-class place name inside Intramuros refers to a site outside the walls. Outside Intramuros but still close on the other bank of the Pasig River, most financial place names are found in Binondo. This district hosts all the financial names except for Aduana and Almacenes, which are classified in two categories. Note that Manila’s bourgeoisie lived in Binondo during the 19th and 20th centuries. An area a little further away from Intramuros is home to most nonprofit place names (Paco, Sampaloc, San Miguel), as well as some leisure activities related to the upper classes: horse racecourses in Santa Mesa and Makati, a restaurant in Binondo, or a crafts and auction house in Ermita. In contrast, Matadero (cockpit arena in Malabon) and Pelota (ball game court in Las Piñas) are found on the outskirts.

The patterns for working-class place names are more complex as they are widespread in the study area. However, the larger number of items in areas surrounding Intramuros, especially on the opposite bank of the Pasig River (Binondo, Quiapo, San Nicolas), indicates economic and working activities. In the case of Binondo, these names refer to financial place names, as trading activities and incipient industrial production, frequently linked to mestizo communities (e.g., Mestizo) and liberal professions (e.g., Prensa) gave rise to Manila’s bourgeoisie at the end of the Spanish and during the American period. In other places, guilds and specific working groups are evident: in Port Area and Navotas, all working-class place names are related to fishing and shipping activities, and particularly in Navotas, all the transport place names are linked to aquatic transportation. In any case, working-class place names are closer to Intramuros than rural and transport place names, the last and further spatial categories.

Rural and transport place names are commonly located on the outskirts of Metro Manila, further away than working-class items. They refer to farming areas where the main routes to the north and south of Luzon were established. The few closer rural place names pertain to initial farming activities that were subsequently abandoned (Quinta, Casa Hacienda) or to distribution more than production areas (Provisor). Transport place names are linked to the main land routes or water infrastructure, the former on the outskirts of Manila, and the latter surrounding creeks, rivers, and the Manila Bay.


3. Conclusions


Place names depict the Geography, History, Linguistics, and Society of territories all over the world. Urban place names tend to focus on social dimensions: they reflect the society and individualities of different times and communities, their distribution, political struggles, economic interests, and domination strategies (Berg & Vuolteenaho, 2009; Calvet, 1974: 79–86; Guillorel, 2008; Higman & Hudson, 2009: 18–19; Shohamy & Waksman, 2009: 313–315).

In the case of Metro Manila’s Hispanic social place names, Intramuros is the city core, an administrative and military walled district closed to other social activities. Around Intramuros, the central financial powers and activities are depicted in Binondo, followed by upper-class leisure activities and nonprofit organizations. Names referring to work activities are scattered all over the map, still following some patterns, and the outer spatial ring is occupied by rural activities and transport-related place names.

Nowadays, Manila’s growth and changes in historical place names have blurred the toponymical reflection of social distribution in the colonial city, but they have not eradicated it. Preserved Hispanic Metro Manila’s place names still reflect the history and society of the urban congregation with its core at Intramuros — the political, military, and religious center — surrounded by Binondo and Ermita — economic powers — and with rural and transport-related activities on the outskirts.

4. References


Adkranz (2014). Political map of Metro Manila, Philippines. link

Bach, John (1920). City of Manila, Philippine Islands. Bureau of Commerce and Industry. link

Berg, Lawrence D., & Vuolteenaho, Jani (Eds.) (2009). Critical toponymies: The contested politics of place naming. Farnham: Ashgate.

Caiña, Lauro Zyan F. (2013, April 13). Marker to elevate Battle of Malinta amongst renowned historical hightlights. Tayo na, Valenzuela! link

Calvet, Jean Louis (1974). Linguistique et colonialisme. Paris: Payot & Rivages.

Castro, Alex R. (2019, April 14). 17 most unusual street names in Manila (and their origins). FilipiKnow. link

De Gamoneda, Francisco J. (1898). Plano de Manila y sus arrabales. Imprenta de Ramón Montes. link

Demographia (2022). Demographia world urban areas: 15th annual edition. link

Destileria Limtuaco (n.d.). 5 Generations of master blenders. link

Doeppers, Daniel F. (2016). Feeding Manila in peace and war 1850-1945. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Fish, Shirley (2011). The Manila-Acapulco galleons: The treasure ships of the Pacific. Central Milton Keynes: AuthorHouse.

Frialde, Mike (2013, November 25). Lighthouse links Taguig to Katipunan. The Philippine Star. link

Gealogo, Francis A. (2011). Counting people: Nineteenth-century population history of four Manila ‘arrabales’ using the ‘Planes of Almas’. Philippine Studies, 59(3), 399–423.

Google Maps (n.d.). Metro Manila. link

Guerrero, Amadís Ma. (2013, October 5). Dimas-Alang, 1919: ‘Historical’ bakery in old Pasig. Philippine Daily Inquirer. link

Guillorel, Hervé (2008). Toponymie et politique. Les marqueurs linguistiques du territoire. Brussels: Bruylant.

Higman, Barry W., & Hudson, Brian J. (2009). Jamaican place names. Kingston: The University of West Indies Press.

Ira, Luning B., & Medina, Isagani R. (1977). Streets of Manila. Metro Manila: gcf Books.

Jersey, Ariel D. (Ed.) (2011). Metro Manila Street Guide. Pasay: United Tourist Promotions.

Klöter, Henning (2011). The language of the Sangleyes: A Chinese vernacular in missionary sources of the seventeenth century. Leiden: Brill.

Lesho, Marivic, & Sippola, Eeva (2018). Toponyms in Manila and Cavite, Philippines. In Thomas Stolz & Ingo H. Warnke (Eds.), Vergleichende kolonialtoponomastik: Strukturen und funktionen kolonialer ortsbenennung (pp. 317–332). Berlin: De Gruyter.

Makati City Government (n.d.). City profile. History. link

Makati City Government (2022). Must See Sites. link

Medina, Isagani R. (1992). Some problems confronting place name research in the Philippines. The Journal of History, 36–37(1–2), 47–57.

National Historical Institute (Philippines) (2006). Daluyan: A historical dictionary of the streets of Manila. Manila: National Historical Institute.

Pasig City Government (2017). Historical & tourists spots. link

Philippine Statistics Authority (2016). Census of population. Total population by province, city, municipality, and barangay of the National Capital Region (ncr). link

Quilis, Antonio, & Casado-Fresnillo, Celia (2008). La lengua española en Filipinas: historia, situación actual, el chabacano, antología de textos. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.

Reed, Robert Ronald (1978). Colonial Manila: The context of Hispanic urbanism and process of morphogenesis. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Shohamy, Elana G., & Waksman, Shoshi (2009). Linguistic landscape as an ecological arena: Modalities, meanings, negotiations, education. In Elana Goldberg Shohamy & Durk Gorter (Eds.), Linguistic landscape: Expanding the scenery (pp. 313–331). New York: Routledge.

Stinner, William F., & Bacol-Montilla, Melinda (1981). Population deconcentration in metropolitan Manila in the twentieth century. The Journal of Developing Areas, 16(1), 3–16.

The Urban Roamer (2009, August 17). Where horses used to thread: Hippodromo St., Sta. Mesa, Manila. The Urban Roamer. link

The Urban Roamer (2012a, April 14). The Pasig formerly of Rizal: Rizal’s first Capitol. The Urban Roamer. link

The Urban Roamer (2012b, April 30). Roaming the neighborhood: Barangay Kapitolyo. The Urban Roamer. link

The Urban Roamer (2020, October 27). The “Simboryo” at Taguig cemetery. The Urban Roamer. link

Traveler On Foot (2008a, May 12). The Kingdom of Namayan and Maytime fiesta in Sta. Ana of Old Manila. Traveler On Foot. link

Traveler On Foot (2008b, March 4). The Carriedo Legacy and the Twin Fountains. Traveler On Foot. link

Valenzuela City Government (n.d.). Parada. Tayo na, Valenzuela! link

Wikimapia (n.d.). Bahay Toro: Village, barangay, fourth-level administrative division. link

Young Men’s Christian Association (1934). City of Manila. Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA). link


Appendix A. Style Guidelines


Each entry is presented following this style:

[Normative Formula] Name. Current Type of Place. Other Names. Coordinates. Translation. Historical Category. Explanation and Comments.

For example:

[Almacén de Pólvora] Almacen de Polvora. Historical Building. El Polvorin. 14.605822, 121.022654. Ammunition Warehouse. Military. Small building constructed in San Juan in 1778 that served as an ammunition warehouse during the Spanish period.

A.1. Specific observations

[Normative Formula] Name


The popular and official name spelling is preserved, but the equivalent current normative Spanish formula is first written between square brackets: [Almacén de Pólvora] Almacen de Polvora. Filipino names almost coincident with Spanish names are written following the Filipino or popular spelling norms, after the Spanish normative formula stated between square brackets: [Cinco] Singco.

The list is alphabetically ordered according to the Normative Formula. If it coincides, it is alphabetically ordered according to the rest of the parameters: Name, Current Type of Place, and Coordinates.

Abbreviations are also explained in the bracketed formula and Hispanic historical names losing popularity are signaled under the label ‘Disused’ between square brackets.


Current Type of Place


Type of place or purpose of the current place: Avenue, Barangay, Bridge, Bus Station, Cockpit Arena, Creek, District, Educational Building, Extension, Event Venue, Ferry Terminal, Fire Station, Fountain, Healthcare Center, Historical Building, Historical Business, Island, Landmark, Lighthouse, Market, Museum, Pass, Park, Playground, Police Station, Port, Pumping Station, Religious Building, Reservoir, Residential Area, Residential Building, River, Road, Sports Facilities, Street, Square.

Barangay is a popular administrative division in the Philippines, similar to a neighborhood in big cities, a district in small towns, and a village in rural areas.


Other Names


Other names for the same place. If these other names are currently in use, separate Hispanic and historical — coined before the 1945 Manila battle — entries are stated for all options, relating the different solutions in their respective sections ‘Other Names’. For example, different entries are listed for ‘Almacén de Pólvora’ and ‘El Polvorín’, stating the alternative name in the ‘Other Names’ section. They are treated as different items in the final analysis, as such names are unique and the present study focuses on names.

Baluarte and Baluartillo, Faro and Farola, El Hogar and El Hogar Filipino are gathered and discussed in the same entry, stating both options in the ‘Name’ section and separating them with a comma.

Old Hispanic names not in use today but still interesting for the historical analysis are listed under ‘Old Name’ between square brackets. Hispanic historical names losing popularity are signaled under ‘Disused’ between square brackets. The normative Spanish spelling for these other place names is not given in this section, but in their proper differentiate entries between square brackets before their current common names (see section ‘[Normative Formula] Name’).




Geographic coordinates in decimal degrees are provided for all entries to allow readers and researchers to obtain accurate physical information about the places. For large entities like districts or roads, coordinates correspond to the central point. Geographic coordinates are more useful and offer more rigorous information than descriptions.




The English translation is provided. Defining names are always translated. For agionyms or religious anthroponyms, translations are given if they are rooted in the English tradition — e.g., Saint Andrew, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael. If the original Spanish place name has the preposition ‘de’, it is translated using the English ‘of’ — i.e. ‘Puerta de Almacenes’ is translated as ‘Gate of Warehouses’, but ‘Puerta Real’ is translated as ‘Royal Gate’.


Explanation and comments


A short explanation and additional information are provided at the end of the entry. Dates, places — current city in Metro Manila or district in the City of Manila —, the historical evolution, social functions, Tagalog influences, and other relevant facts are indicated. To this end, I mainly relied on Isagani Medina’s linguistic comments in Streets of Manila (Ira & Medina, 1977) and the book Daluyan: A Historical Dictionary of the Streets of Manila (nhip, 2006). Additional sources consulted for specific entries are cited as needed.

The information provided herein is separated by semicolons, and the elements in an entry are separated by periods.


Families of items


In some cases, a historical toponym occurs in several current places. To facilitate the discussion, I have gathered the results under the same entry, stating some basic historical information at the beginning and then listing the current items in separate lines after a tab without repeating the initial historical information, for example, Almacenes: Almacenes Reales, Puerta de Almacenes.

First, the historical name is given after the normative formula between square brackets, followed by its translation, historical category, and explanation and comments. Then, in the lines that follow, current entities, including the historical place name, are listed after their normative formulas between square brackets, followed by the current type of place and coordinates. Additional sections, like translation, historical category, and explanation and comments, are added as needed, but they do not repeat the information previously stated. The historical name and current entities follow the guidelines stated herein.

The same Hispanic place name may be historically present and preserved in different areas of Manila. If so, the name represents a family of entries and the number of places the name refers to is indicated after its name, for example, [Hipódromo] Hipodromo, horse racecourse (2). For Intramuros, Las Piñas, and Zapote, there are many items including these names, and I analyzed the settlements and their names in a generic entry. In the case of ‘[Población] Poblacion (6)’, there are six areas with multiple items that include the toponym, and I analyzed the generic name Población as a family of entries followed by generic entries for each area.


Appendix B. List of Place Names


Aceite. Oil. Working-class. Street and extension in Santa Mesa surrounding the former Philippine Vegetable Oil Company.


Aceite. Extension. 14.5969949, 121.0022253

Aceite. Street. 14.5977494, 121.0028826


Aduana. Historical Building. La Intendencia. 14.5939, 120.9745. Customs. Financial, Public Administration. Building in Intramuros that housed government offices during the Spanish period, among them the Customs Offices (Aduana) and the Civil Administration Offices (La Intendencia).


[Almacén de Pólvora] Almacen de Polvora. Historical Building. El Polvorin. 14.605822, 121.022654. Ammunition Dump. Military. Small building constructed in San Juan in 1778 that served as an ammunition warehouse during the Spanish period.

Almacenes. Warehouses. Financial, Military. Building and adjacent gate in the Intramuros wall that stored goods from the galleons and other vessels during the Spanish period.


Almacenes Reales. Historical Building. 14.593236,120.9718479.
Royal Warehouses.

Puerta de Almacenes. Historical Building. 14.594225945, 120.972320437. Gate of Warehouses. Gate built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period, partially destroyed in 1903.


Arroceros. Rice Dealers. Working Class. Area in Ermita that hosted a rice market, whose product mainly came from the province of Laguna; during the 19th century, a tobacco factory called ‘Fábrica de Arroceros’ was established.


Arroceros. Fire Station. 14.593184, 120.981908

Arroceros. Pumping Station. 14.593141, 120.983199

Arroceros Forest Park. Park. 14.594206, 120.981614


[Asilo de Huérfanos] Asilo de Huerfanos. Historical Building. 14.658333, 120.956111. Asylum of Orphans. Nonprofit. Orphanage established in Malabon in 1887 by the Augustinians with a powerful printing press; it currently serves as a machine factory and warehouse.


[Asilo de San Vicente de Paúl] Asilo de San Vicente de Paul. Historical Building. Casa de San Vicente de Paul [In Disuse]. 14.584108, 120.990564. Asylum of Saint Vincent de Paul. Nonprofit. Orphanage founded in Paco in 1885, initially called ‘Casa de San Vicente de Paúl’.


[Asociación de Damas de Filipinas] Asociacion de Damas de Filipinas. Historical Building. 14.5812, 120.9985. Association of Ladies of the Philippines. Nonprofit. Orphanage founded in Paco in 1913, sometimes called ‘Asociacion de Damas Filipinas’, its current building dates back to 1925.


Asociación Feminista Filipina [In Disuse]. Landmark. National Federation of Women’s Clubs of the Philippines, Samahang Feminista ng Pilipinas [In Disuse]. 14.57824, 120.989645. Philippine Feminist Association. Nonprofit. Organization founded in Paco in 1905 to promote women’s social life and activism.


Ayuntamiento de Manila. Historical Building. Casas Consistoriales, Marble Palace. 14.592481, 120.973512. City Hall of Manila. Public Administration. Building in Intramuros that served as the Spanish City Hall since 1609; in 1903, it was converted into the office of the American military governor, and since 2013, it serves as the headquarters of the Bureau of the Treasury.


Balante. Creek. 14.6375742, 121.103458. Ram, Sheep. Rural. Creek in Marikina where farming and cattle-ranching activities were carried out.


Baluarte, Baluartillo (12). Bastion, Little Bastion. Military. Twelve bastions or little bastions built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period.


[Baluarte de San Andrés] Baluarte de San Andres. Historical Building. 14.586951, 120.978857. Bastion of Saint Andrew.


Baluarte de San Diego. Historical Building. Fort Nuestra Señora de Guia. 14.5854228, 120.9756221. Bastion of Saint James.


Baluarte de San Francisco de Dilao. Historical Building. 14.590342, 120.979129. Bastion of Saint Francis of Dilao.


Baluarte de San Gabriel. Historical Building. 14.594053, 120.977467. Bastion of Saint Gabriel.


Baluarte de San Miguel. Historical Building. 14.594208, 120.969857. Bastion of Saint Michael.


[Baluarte de Santa Bárbara] Baluarte de Santa Barbara. Historical Building. 14.59533, 120.969311. Bastion of Saint Barbara.


Baluarte Plano de Santa Isabel. Historical Building. 14.589389, 120.972752. Flat Bastion of Saint Elizabeth.


Baluartillo de San Eugenio. Historical Building. 14.587594, 120.974128. Little Bastion of Saint Eugene.


Baluartillo de San Francisco Javier. Historical Building. 14.592681, 120.970834. Little Bastion of Saint Francis Xavier.


[Baluartillo de San José] Baluartillo de San Jose. Historical Building. 14.5864751, 120.9750402. Little Bastion of Saint Joseph.


Baluartillo de San Juan. Historical Building. 14.591313, 120.971935. Little Bastion of Saint John.


Medio Baluarte de San Francisco. Historical Building. 14.594562, 120.970833. Half Bastion of Saint Francis.


Bañera. Street. 14.642091, 120.953062. Bathtub. Working-class. Street in Manila’s North Port, Navotas, next to other Spanish toponyms related to shipyards and fishing activities.


Banco Nacional. National Bank. Financial. Bridge, dock, and street in the area where the old Philippine National Bank (PNB) was established in 1916.


Muelle del Banco Nacional. Bridge. 14.598316, 120.980152. Dock of the National Bank. Financial, Working-class.

Muelle del Banco Nacional. Port, Street. 14.596736, 120.977810. Dock of the National Bank. Financial, Working-class.


Banquero. Street. 14.599222, 120.979429. Banker. Financial. Street that crosses Escolta Street (Scort Street) and Muelle del Banco Nacional (Dock of the National Bank), not far from the Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros building (Mount of Piety and Savings Bank), it reflects the historical financial activities in the district of Binondo.


Barraca. Street. 14.597644, 120.973618. Barracks. Military, Working-class. Street in San Nicolas where a shipyard was built on former barracks at the end of the 18th century.


Barrio Obrero (2). Working-class Neighborhood. Working-class. Two areas are called Barrio Obrero, one in northern Tondo and another in Pandancan; both refer to the social condition of the local inhabitants.


Barrio Obrero. Residential Area. 14.611743, 120.975206

Barrio Obrero. Street. 14.592, 121.012935

Barrio Obrero Catholic Church. Religious Building. 14.6345, 120.981

Barrio Obrero Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.635572, 120.978995

Iglesia Ni Cristo Lokal Ng Barrio Obrero. Religious Building. 14.6344, 120.9792. Church of Christ Locale of Worker District

Obrero Public Market. Market. 14.622978, 120.983638


Caballeros. Street. 14.6003943, 120.9701489. Horsemen. Working-class. Street and riding track in San Nicolas used by Spanish horsemen.


Cabildo. Street. Daan Cabildo. 14.593111, 120.972667. Canonry, Hall. Public Administration. Street in Intramuros where the former City Hall (Ayuntamiento, Casas Consistoriales) and the Cathedral are located.


Calero. Street. 14.602939, 120.982833. Lime Kiln, Lime Maker, Lime Seller. Working-class. Street in Quiapo; according to Ira and Medina (1977), its name refers to lime-related activities carried out in front of the old prison (p. 112).


Calzada. Road. Transport. Area and barangay in Taguig, also known as Calzada Tipas (Tagalog language Tipas: Cut, Diversion); during the Spanish times, the area had the only road between Tipas and Napindan, where the Pasig River discharges into Laguna de Bay.


Calzada. Barangay. Calzada Tipas. 14.533565, 121.079983

Calzada. Health Center. 14.533731, 121.079969

Calzada Tipas. Barangay. Calzada. 14.533565, 121.079983


Camarilla. Camarilla, Clique, Small Military Unit. Military. Area and streets besides Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City, headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines since 1935.


1st Camarilla. Street. 14.615185, 121.062718

2nd Camarilla. Street. 14.614116, 121.06245

3rd Camarilla. Street. 14.613271, 121.06281

4th Camarilla. Street. 14.614031, 121.06274

5th Camarilla. Street. 14.614703, 121.06289

6th Camarilla. Street. 14.614347, 121.063544

Camarilla Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.615032, 121.063175


[Camarín] Camarin. Cottage, Small Chamber. Rural. Area in Caloocan, rural during the Spanish period, when it was a village of ‘camarines’, or nipa and bamboo cottages.


[Camarín] Camarin. Avenue. 14.739667, 121.047861

[Camarín] Camarin. Barangay. 14.762234, 121.043508

[Camarín] Camarin. Bus Station. 14.768297, 121.043803

[Camarín] Camarin. Road. 14.7562112, 121.0461597

[Camarín] Camarin Central. Barangay. 14.7514408, 121.0365514

[Camarín Elementary School] Camarin Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.762, 121.0436

[Camarín High School] Camarin High School. Educational Building. 14.762238, 121.048889

[Camarín Kiko] Camarin Kiko. Barangay. 14.7446, 121.0702


Camino Real. Road. 14.416921, 121.006924. Royal Road. Transport. Section of the old Calle Real in Las Piñas, now Alabang-Zapote Road.


[Capitolio] Kapitolyo. Capitol. Public Administration. Ruins of the old capitol of the province of Rizal, now in Pasig, built in the early 20th century; also, its adjacent district in Pasig (The Urban Roamer [TUR], 2012a, 2012b).


[Capitolio] Kapitolyo. District. 14.571117, 121.059645

[Capitolio] Kapitolyo. Historical Building. Old Rizal Provincial Capitol Ruins. 14.5569256, 121.0717

[Capitolio] Kapitolyo. Park. 14.571152, 121.059576

[Capitolio Homes] Kapitolyo Homes. Residential Area. 14.555326, 121.079247

[Capitolio Overpass] Kapitolyo Overpass. Pass. 14.57399, 121.061774

[Capitolio Senior High School] Kapitolyo Senior High School. Educational Building. 14.567993, 121.06322


Casa Asilo de Nuestra Señora de la Consolación de Mandaloya. Educational Building. Don Bosco Technical College. 14.5902, 121.0256. House Asylum of Our Lady of the Consolation of Mandaloya. Nonprofit. Augustinian convent built in Mandaluyong in 1716, converted to an asylum in 1883, and finally the Don Bosco Technical College since 1953; the current building is named after the former asylum.


Casa Consulado. Historical Building. Iturralde Mansion, Iturralde House. 14.600176, 120.9887317. Consulate Home. Public Administration. Mansion built in Quiapo in 1926, former Consulate House of Monaco in the Philippines in 1936.


[Casa de San Vicente de Paúl] Casa de San Vicente de Paul [In Disuse]. Historical Building. Asilo de San Vicente de Paul. 14.584108, 120.990564. House of Saint Vincent de Paul. Nonprofit. Orphanage founded in Paco in 1885, currently named ‘Asilo de San Vicente de Paul’.


Casa Hacienda. Park. Poblacion. 14.567667, 121.033068. Hacienda House. Rural. Park in Makati, besides the Pasig River, where a Jesuit hacienda with plantations was initially located; afterward, it served as the trade base for the Roxas family. The buildings were demolished during the 20th century, and the plot was transformed into a park that preserves the name (Makati City Government [mcg], 2017).


[Casa Katipunero, La Casa del Katipunero] El Casa Katipunero. Historical Building, Museum. 14.671933, 120.946684. The Katipunero’s House. Another social function. House built in Malabon at the end of the 19th century where members of the Katipunan met.


Casa Tesoro. Historical Building. 14.57672, 120.981552. Treasure House. Leisure. Upper-class palace built in Ermita in 1901 that has served as an antiques and crafts house since before the 1945 Manila battle.


Casas Consistoriales. Historical Building. Ayuntamiento de Manila, Marble Palace. 14.592481, 120.973512. City Halls. Public Administration. Building in Intramuros that served as the Spanish City Hall since 1609. In 1903, it was converted to the office of the American military governor, and since 2013, it serves as the headquarters of the Bureau of the Treasury.


Casino Español de Manila. Event Venue, Historical Building. 14.583941, 120.984822. Spanish Casino of Manila. Another social function. Event venue for the Spanish community in Manila built in Ermita in 1913 and rebuilt in 1951 in the same place and under the same name.


Cementina. Cementine. Working-class. Area in Pasay where factories and work activities related to cement production were probably carried out.


Cementina. Extension. 14.548004, 121.001845

Cementina. Street. 14.547927, 121.001519


[Cimborrio] Simboryo. Historical Building. 14.529393, 121.073549. Lantern Tower. Another social function. Dome-shaped mortuary chapel in the Santa Ana cemetery in Taguig, built during the 18th century (The Urban Roamer, 2020).


[Cinco] Singco. Ferry Terminal. 14.667425, 120.945247. Five. Transport. Fifth ferry terminal established to cross the Navotas River.


Comercio. Business, Commerce, Market, Store, Trade. 14.602923, 120.971399. Commerce. Working-class. Area in San Nicolas where trading activities and markets have been established since the Spanish period. There are other areas named Comercio all over the city where trading activities are neither prevailing nor historical.


Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas. Historical Building, Historical Business. Compañía Española de Tabacos de Filipinas [Old Name], La Tabacalera. 14.58589, 120.987251. General Company of Tobacco of the Philippines. Working-class. Building and factory of a tobacco company established in Ermita in 1881, although the current building was constructed during the 20th century and later acquired by the Adamson University.


Cuadra. Street. 14.687298, 121.016726. Block, Stable. Rural. Street and area in Novaliches, Quezon City, where stables were located during the Spanish period.


[Cuartel de la Guardia Civil] Cuartel del Guardia Civil. Historical Building. Guanio Residence. 14.5816589,121.08444. Barracks of the Civil Guard. Another social function. Built in Pasig in 1881 as a private house and then transformed into a station of the Spanish Civil Gard. In the 20th century, the building was bought by the Guanio family (Pasig City Government, 2017).


[Cuartel de Santa Lucía] Cuartel de Santa Lucia. Historical Building. 14.588389, 120.973722. Barracks of Saint Lucy. Military. Barracks built in Intramuros during the Spanish period (1781).


Cuarteles. Street. 14.573524, 120.980954. Barracks. Military. Street leading to the Spanish and American barracks and military station in Malate.


[Cuatro] Quatro. Ferry Terminal. 14.6717, 120.9414. Four. Transport. Forth ferry terminal established to cross the Navotas River.


[Dádivas] Dadivas. Street. 14.6035241,120.97407. Gifts. Working-class. This street already appeared on maps before the Manila battle, and its location in the heart of the financial and commercial area of Binondo is related to trading activities.


Deparo. Provision. Rural. A provision rural area in Caloocan during the Spanish period.


Deparo. Road. 14.740062, 121.025693

Deparo Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.7412938,121.021953

Deparo High School. Educational Building. 14.7398, 121.0114

Deparo Subdivision. Residential Area. 14.73984 121.02796


[Destilería Limtuaco] Destileria Limtuaco. Historical Business. 14.6581035, 121.009112949. Limtuaco Distillery. Working-class. Distillery established in Binondo in 1850 and then moved to Caloocan in 1939, although its current facilities were built at a later time (Destileria Limtuaco, n.d.).


Divisoria. District, Market. 14.6027, 120.9705. Dividing Line, Frontier. Another social function. Area delimiting the boundaries between the districts of Binondo, San Nicolas, and Tondo; in the past, it also established the limits of the Hokkien Chinese settlements in Manila (Klöter, 2011).


[El Depósito] El Deposito. The Water Deposit, The Reservoir Tank. Another social function. Underground water reservoir built in San Juan in 1880; the Battle of San Juan del Monte during the Philippine Revolution started in this place in 1896.


[El Depósito] El Deposito. Historical Building, Reservoir. 14.604773, 121.030542

[Museo El Depósito] Museo El Deposito. Museum. 14.60427, 121.031819


El Hogar, El Hogar Filipino. Historical Building. 14.5962, 120.9757. The Home, The Filipino Home. Financial. Building in Binondo dated in 1914. It hosted the finance cooperative ‘Sociedad El Hogar Filipino’ and reflects the historical financial activities in the area.


[El Polvorín] El Polvorin. Historical Building. Almacén de Pólvora. 14.604122, 121.031312. Ammunition Dump. Military. Small building built in San Juan in 1778 that served as an ammunition warehouse during the Spanish period.


Embarcadero. Street. 14.58283, 121.01311. Dock. Transport. Street in Santa Ana leading to a dock at the Pasig River.


Escaldo. Street. 14.598802, 120.984548. Burnt. Rural, Working-class. Street in Quiapo. According to Daluyan (National Historical Institute (Philippines), 2006), the name refers to a burned ground related to former farming or industrial activities (p. 30); however, some sources relate the name to candle manufacturing to supply the Quiapo church.


Escolta. Escort. Financial, Working-class. Street and area in Binondo with intense trading and economic activities throughout Manila’s history. The nature of these activities, the arrival of goods through the close Pasig River, and the main banks and bankers in the area warranted the presence of guards and escorts.


Escolta. Historical Building, Museum. Calvo. 14.5972, 120.9782

Escolta. Street. 14.596863, 120.977182

Escolta River Ferry. Ferry Terminal. 14.596433, 120.977496

Escolta Twin Towers. Residential Building. 14.597506, 120.978708


[Estación] Estacion. Street. 14.548954, 121.01278. Station. Transport. Street besides the npr Pasay Train Station.


Falsabraga de Media Naranja. Historical Building. 14.5953, 120.9696. Faussebraye of Half Orange. Military. Faussebraye built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period. It served as a gunpowder warehouse for the ‘Baluarte de Santa Bárbara’, as well as a prison and storeroom.


Faro, Farola (2). Lantern, Lighthouse. Transport, Working-class. Two historical lighthouses (no longer existing) with names currently used to refer to surrounding buildings. The Taguig lighthouse was demolished during the Philippine Revolution (Frialde, 2013); the Tondo lighthouse was brought down in 1992 and subsequently rebuilt. Several streets and alleys in Manila are called Farol and Farola, but I found no evidence of any distinctive lantern or lights.


[Faro y Luces del Río Pasig] Faro y Luces de Rio de Pasig. Lighthouse. Pasig River Lighthouse. 14.597105, 120.961363. Lighthouse and Lights of the Pasig River

[Farola] Parola. Lighthouse. Parola Ng Napindan. 14.525701, 121.107796

[Farola Compound] Parola Compound. Residential Area. 14.5990848, 120.9585995

[Farola Ng Napindan] Parola Ng Napindan. Lighthouse. Parola. 14.525701, 121.107796


Fraternal. Street. 14.597263, 120.987841. Fraternal. Working-class. Narrow street in the heart of Quiapo, whose name derives from the guild, social, and communal character of its settlers.


Fuente de Carriedo. Fountain. Carriedo Fountain. 14.5998966, 120.9803277. Fountain of Carriedo. Working-class. Historical fountain initially built in Sampaloc, now located in Plaza Santa Cruz. It supplied freshwater for household and labor uses (Traveler On Foot [tof], 2008b).


Fuerte de San Antonio Abad. Historical Building. Fort San Antonio Abad, Polvorín de San Antonio Abad [Old Name]. 14.562639, 120.986833. Military. Fort of Saint Anthony the Abbot. Spanish fort built in Malate in 1584.


Fuerte de Santiago. Historical Building. Fort Santiago. 14.594328, 120.970534. Fort of Santiago. Military. Fort built in Intramuros during the Spanish period.


Fundidor. Street. 14.601348, 120.971506. Foundry Worker. Working-class. Street and area in San Nicolas where smelters and warehouses were common.


Gota de Leche. Historical Building. La Protección de la lnfancia. 14.602774, 120.988473. Drop of Milk. Nonprofit. Foundation established in 1906 to help impoverished young people, although the building in Sampaloc named after it dates back to 1916.


Herradura. Street. 14.5718398, 121.02. Horseshoe. Leisure. Street in Makati whose name derives from the horse racecourse built in 1936 and active until 2008.


[Hipódromo] Hipodromo, Hippodromo (2). Horse racecourse. Leisure. Streets and subsequent public facilities whose names derive from two racecourses: one in Santa Mesa, established in 1881 (tur, 2009), and the other in Makati, founded in 1936 and active until 2008.


[Hipódromo] Hipodromo. Playground. 14.601645, 121.008002

[Hipódromo] Hipodromo. Street. 14.60035, 121.008995

[Hipódromo] Hippodromo. Street. 14.5715906, 121.019629

[Hipódromo Covered Court] Hipodromo Covered Court. Sports Facilities. 14.601672, 121.008006


Hormiga. Street. 14.598874, 120.975256. Ant. Another social function. Street in Binondo. According to Ira and Medina (1977), the name describes the traffic of the street during the Spanish period (p. 59).


[Hospicio de San José] Hospicio de San Jose. Historical Building. 14.5906, 120.9885. Orphanage of Saint Joseph. Nonprofit. Hospice established in ‘Isla de Convalencia’ (Island of Convalescence) in 1810.


Industria (2). Industry. Working-class. Several areas in Metro Manila where factories and other industrial activities have been established; the ones in Binondo and Pandacan have a deep history and identity.


Industria. Street. 14.5919, 121.003905. Street and area in Pandacan where highly esteemed shoe manufacturing and textile industries were located during the Spanish period, later replaced by oil depots during the American period (Ira & Medina, 1977: 223).

Muelle de la Industria. Port, Street. 14.59594, 120.975556. Dock of the Industry. Dock and street in San Nicolas and Binondo dedicated to industrial activities; the street and the area were later occupied by Manila’s bourgeoisie, who built elegant neoclassical buildings during the American period.


Ingreso. Street. 14.598423, 120.974308. Income. Financial. Street in Binondo, not far from Renta, referring to the historical financial activities in the district.


Insular. Street. 14.601292, 120.974259. Insular. Working-class. Street in Binondo whose name comes from the former cigarette factory and historical building so named and demolished in 1944.


Intramuros. District. 14.5896, 120.9747. Within Walls. Military, Public Administration. Historical district of Manila surrounded by walls where the Spanish military, political, and religious powers were established. The toponym is used extensively over the district and in other parts of Manila and the Philippines with no direct relationship.


[Isla de Convalecencia] Isla de Convalencia. Island. Isla de San Andres. 14.590479, 120.988787. Island of Convalescence. Nonprofit. Island in the Pasig River hosting the ‘Hospicio de San Jose’ (Hospice of Saint Joseph) since 1810.


Jaboneros. Street. 14.597844, 120.969724. Soap Makers, Soap Sellers. Working-class. Street in San Nicolas where soap manufacturers and dealers were common during the Spanish period.


Labores. Street. 14.589038, 121.003099. Works. Working-class. Street and area in Pandacan where highly esteemed shoe manufacturing and textile industries were located during the Spanish period, later replaced by oil depots during the American period.


[La Campana Fábrica de Tabacos] La Campana Fabrica de Tabacos. Historical Business. Mighty Corporation. 14.575401, 121.022815. The Bell Factory of Tobacco. Working-class. Building and tobacco factory established in Makati in September 1945, a few weeks after Manila’s battle but still classified as historical.


La Huerta (3). The Orchard, The Vegetable Garden. Rural. Area in Parañaque and small areas in Muntinlupa and Valenzuela where orchards were established during the Spanish period.


Don Galo - La Huerta. Bridge. 14.502183, 120.992829

[La Huerta] La Guerta. Street. 14.387397, 121.046327

La Huerta. Barangay. 14.50059, 120.991369

La Huerta. Street. 14.673753, 120.992044

La Huerta Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.498148, 120.993232

La Huerta National High School. Educational Building. 14.501065, 120.992338


La Intendencia. Historical Building. Aduana. 14.5939, 120.9745. The Civil Administration. Public Administration. Building in Intramuros that housed government offices during the Spanish rule of Manila, among them the Civil Administration Offices (La Intendencia) and the Customs Offices (Aduana).


[La Protección de la Infancia] La Proteccion de la lnfancia. Historical Building. Gota de Leche. 14.602774, 120.988473. The Protection of the Childhood. Nonprofit. Organization established in 1906 to help impoverished young people, although the building named after it in Sampaloc dates back to 1916.


La Tabacalera. Historical Building, Historical Business. Compañía Española de Tabacos de Filipinas [Old Name], Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas. 14.58589, 120.987251. The Tobacco Company. Working-class. Facilities and factory of a tobacco company established in Ermita in 1881, although the current building was constructed during the 20th century, later acquired by the Adamson University. There is a barangay in Pateros named Tabacalera, but I found no relationship between La Tabacalera company or any other tobacco activities and this barangay.


Las Piñas. City. 14.4445, 120.9939. The Pineapples, The Rocks. Rural. There are two explanations for its etymology. One option considers pineapple farming and trade (Las Piñas: The Pineapples); another explanation relates the place name to the surrounding rocks used for construction (Las Peñas: The Rocks). According to historical documentation, both options are plausible, but I consider the latter more feasible. The toponym is used extensively to name places all over the city.


Lavanderos. Street. 14.6012994, 120.9947149. Washermen. Working-class. Street and area in Sampaloc where poor inhabitants washed clothes for merchants and middle-class people. During the Spanish period, the whole district of Sampaloc was known as ‘Pueblo de los Lavanderos’ (Village of the Washers) (Ira & Medina, 1977: 136–137).


Lecheros. Street. 14.614671, 120.970378. Milkmen. Working-class. Street and area in Tondo where milk dealers and distributors were common during the Spanish period (Doeppers, 2016: 267).


Maestranza. Armory. Military. Spanish armory built in Intramuros adjoining the Pasig River.


Maestranza. Parking. Plaza Maestranza. 14.594604, 120.973275

Maestranza. Street. 14.5939839, 120.9729154

Maestranza Creative Quarter. Historical Building, Museum. 14.5941168, 120.9725759

Plaza Maestranza. Parking. Maestranza. 14.594604, 120.973275


Malaria. Malaria. Another social function. Road and area in Caloocan, which may have taken this name for being prone to malaria outbreaks.


Malaria. Road. 14.770514, 121.076927

Malaria Basketball Court. Sports Facilities. 14.769715, 121.079308


Matadero. Cockpit Arena. 14.661424, 120.952483. Slaughterhouse. Leisure, Working-class. Cockpit arena located in Malabon. Place name given to a recent building with deep historical roots.


Mestizo. Street. 14.598244, 120.970806. Half-blood. Another social function. Alley in San Nicolas named after mestizo communities living in the area and their economic activities.


Molino Dam. Reservoir. 14.438628, 120.975327. Mill Dam. Rural. Diversion dam in the Zapote River, Las Piñas, built during the Spanish period to irrigate crop fields.


Monte de Piedad. Historical Building. Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros [Old Name]. 14.600098, 120.980171. Mount of Piety. Financial. Building in ‘Plaza de Santa Cruz’, constructed in 1938 and serving as the headquarters of the financial institution so named and founded in 1882.


Muelle de Binondo. Port, Street. 14.597173, 120.974688. Dock of Binondo. Working-class. Dock and street in Binondo dedicated to trading and manufacturing activities.


Muelle de San Francisco. Port, Street. 14.586317, 120.967683. Dock of Saint Francis. Working-class. Dock and street in the Port Area dedicated to industrial and shipping activities.


Muelle de Tacoma. Port, Street. 14.59197808, 120.965105295. Dock of Tacoma. Working-class. Dock and street in the Port Area dedicated to industrial and shipping activities.


[Muelle del Río] Muelle del Rio. Port, Street. 14.5952196, 120.9662582. Dock of the River. Working-class. Dock and street in the Port Area, facing the Pasig River, dedicated to industrial and shipping activities.


Muralla. Wall. Military. Walls and adjacent street built during the Spanish period, delimiting Intramuros (Within Walls).


Muralla. Historical Building. Intramuros Walls. 14.5898, 120.9791

Muralla. Street. 14.593521, 120.977477


Obrero (2). Working-class. Working-class. Area and barangay in Quezon City that refers to the social condition of its early settlers. Also, a street in Makati and a non-historical street in Marikina. Note that it is different from Barrio Obrero.


Obrero. Barangay. 14.6287, 121.0299

Obrero. Street. 14.571238, 121.022467


[Palacio de Malacañán] Palasyo Ng Malacañang. Historical Building. Malacañang Palace, Palacio de Malacañán [Old Name]. 14.5939, 120.9945. Palace of Malacañang. Public Administration. Historical mansion built in San Miguel in 1750. Later, it was the residence of the Spanish Governor-General since 1863, of American governors since 1898, and, finally, of the President of the Philippines since 1935.


Palacio del Gobernador. Historical Building. 14.5916, 120.9725. Palace of the Governor. Public Administration. Building in Intramuros that was the residence of the Spanish Governor-General until 1863.


[Panadería Dimas-Alang] Panaderia Dimas-Alang. Historical Business. 14.563435, 121.076072. Bakery Dimas-Alang. Working-class. Bakery established in Pasig in 1919 (Guerrero, 2013).


Panaderos. Bakers. Working-class. Area in Santa Ana that was a bakery center during the Spanish period (Traveler On Foot, 2008a).


New Panaderos. Extension. 14.585398, 121.018625

Old Panaderos. Street. 14.58471, 121.01591


[Pancitería Macanista de Buen Gusto] Panciteria Macanista de Buen Gusto. Historical Building. 14.599774, 120.973682. Macanist Panciteria of Good Taste. Leisure, Working-class. Restaurant in Binondo specialized in pancit or noodles, mentioned by José P. Rizal in El Filibusterismo. It closed long ago; the building is in a poor condition but still not demolished.


Parada. Stop. Rural, Transport. Area and barangay in Valenzuela that hosted a horse carriage parking lot during the Spanish period (Valenzuela City Government [vcg], n.d.).


Parada. Barangay. 14.69591098, 120.98840833

Parada. Extension. 14.697988, 120.997341

Parada. Road. 14.6988802, 120.9901699.

Parada Basketball Court. Sports Facilities. 14.696048, 120.989457

Parada Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.6981144, 12 0.9877217

Parada Heath Station. Health Center. 14.695797, 120.989251

Parada National High School. Educational Building. 14.694 642, 120.990271


[Parián] Parian (3). Chinese market, Chinese place, Market. Working-class. Several trading areas, most of them initially inhabited by Chinese Hokkien communities; the one outside Intramuros is historically relevant.


[Parián] Parian. Creek. 14.561608, 121.089619. Creek in Pasig.

[Parián] Parian. District. Pantín [Old Name], Parián de Arroceros [Old Name]. 14.592218, 120.978076. Area in Manila, being the most important Parian during the Spanish period.

Pariancillo Villa. Barangay. 14.707222, 120.943611. Area and barangay in Valenzuela.

[Puerta del Parián] Puerta del Parian. Historical Building. 14.592263612, 120.97825348. Gate of the Market. Military, Working-class. Gate built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period.

[Revellín del Parián] Revellin del Parian. Historical Building. 14.59266, 120.978971. Ravelin of the Market. Military, Working-class. Ravelin built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period.


Paso de Blas. Passage of Blaise. Transport. Area and barangay in Valenzuela, besides Parada, in a strategical point between the City of Manila and the north of Luzon.


Paso de Blas. Barangay. 14.703476, 120.993604

Paso de Blas. Fire Station. 14.707783, 120.992577

Paso de Blas. Road. 14.7067548, 120.9907509

Paso de Blas Chapel. Religious Building. 14.704957, 120.988702

Paso de Blas Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.7056, 120.99132

Paso de Blas National High School. Educational Building. 14.704438, 120.98682


[Paso del Diablo] Pasong Diablo. Passage of the Devil. Transport. River and surrounding area in Muntinlupa, near Laguna de Bay, is a strategic point between the City of Manila and the south of Luzon.


Pasong Diablo. Bridge. 14.423875, 121.045303

Pasong Diablo. River. Mangangate. 14.430379, 121.043974


Paseo de Animales. Street. 14.612471, 121.082494. Promenade of Animals. Rural. Long street in Pasig close to the Marikina River, in a former farming area.


Pastor. Street. 14.633768, 120.969438. Shepherd. Rural. Street in North Tondo, Daluyan (National Historical Institute (Philippines), 2006). This name is related to Protestant Churches in the area (p. 84); however, its location outside historical urban Manila, between Estero de Maypajo (Estuary of a kind of mango) and Estero de Sunog Apog (Estuary of Lime Combustion), close to other farming place names like Bukid (Tagalog Language: Farm), links it to rural activities.


Pateros. Municipality. 14.4445, 120.9939. Duck keepers, Duck raisers. Rural. The only municipality in Metro Manila — the rest of the localities are cities —, it was the center of the duck egg industry during the Spanish period (Doeppers, 2016: 197). The toponym is spread all over the municipality.


Pelota. Sports Facilities. 14.4343, 120.9827. Ball, Basque Pelota. Leisure. A ball game of Hispanic origin that was popular in the Philippines during the Spanish period and still played in some areas of the country. The place in Las Piñas is nowadays a skate park built inside a former ballgame court.


Pescador I. Street. 14.649047, 120.950866. Fisherman I. Working-class. Street in Navotas Fish Port Complex.


Pescador II. Street. 14.647926, 120.950802. Fisherman II. Working-class. Street in Navotas Fish Port Complex.


[Platerías] Platerias. Street. 14.599317, 120.982743. Silversmith. Working-class. Street in Quiapo where silversmith activities were popular during the Spanish period.


Plaza de Armas. Square. 14.594444, 120.97. Square of Weapons. Military. Square inside Fort Santiago, one of the most relevant Spanish forts in Intramuros.


Plaza Liga Filipina. Landmark, Square. 14.60671, 120.968069. Philippine League Square. Another social function. Square in Tondo, being the location of the house of Doroteo Ongjunco (no longer existing), where José P. Rizal founded La Liga Filipina (The Filipino League) in 1893.


[Población] Poblacion (6). Population, Town. Another social function. In the Philippines, Poblacion refers to a town or city center. As Metro Manila is composed of several current and historical settlements, there are six places named Poblacion. Although they are commonly referred as Poblacion, here I mention the city they belong after the word Poblacion (e.g., Poblacion Caloocan). The place name Poblacion is widely used all over the six districts to name business and public facilities, Poblacion Makati being the most relevant one.


[Población Caloocan] Poblacion Caloocan. Barangay. 14.6490,120.9711

[Población Makati] Poblacion Makati. Barangay. Poblacion. 14.5657, 121.0321

[Población Mandaluyong] Poblacion Mandaluyong. Barangay. 14.5864, 121.0266

[Población Muntinlupa] Poblacion Muntinlupa. Barangay. 14.3 8541, 121.02903

[Población Pateros] Poblacion Pateros. Barangay. 14.54456, 121.066915

[Población Valenzuela] Poblacion Valenzuela. Barangay. 14.707638, 120.945492


Postigo (2). Military. Two wickets built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish area: ‘Postigo del Palacio’ (Postern of the Palace) and ‘Postigo de la Nuestra Señora del Soledad’ (Postern of Our Lady of the Solitude, originally ‘Postigo de Nuestra Señora de la Soledad’); some adjacent elements have adopted the name.


Postigo. Street. 14.59133, 120.972792. Postern. Street driving to ‘Postigo del Palacio’ (Postern of the Palace).

[Postigo de Nuestra Señora de la Soledad] Postigo de la Nuestra Señora del Soledad. Historical Building. 14.595016, 120.969986. Postern of Our Lady of the Solitude.

Postigo del Palacio. Historical Building. Puerta Postigo del Palacio. 14.590341, 120.972484. Military, Public Administration. Postern of the Palace.

Puerta Postigo del Palacio. Historical Building. Postigo del Palacio. 14.590341, 120.972484. Military, Public Administration. Postern of the Palace Gate.


Potrero. Pastureland. Rural. Area and barangay in Malabon. Its geographic nature, historical rural activities in the area, and location adjacent to the Tullahan River and close to other areas like Parada or Paso de Blas, relate its name to herds and pastureland.


Potrero. Barangay. 14.664873, 120.978672

Potrero Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.6631872, 120.983879

Potrero National High School. Educational Building. 14.664565, 120.978264


Prensa. Street. 14.596456, 120.97359. Press. Working-class. Street in Binondo where the first printing presses of the Philippines were established by the Chinese Keng Yong and later by Tomás Pinpin. The printing-press tradition in the area remained until the 20th century.


[Pretil] Pritil. Parapet. Transport. Bridge that connects Tondo with Caloocan, and its surrounding area; a market that still exists was established under the same name.


[Pretil] Pritil. Bridge. 14.617911, 120.97064

[Pretil] Pritil. Market. 14.617768, 120.969657

[Pretil] Pritil. Police Station. 14.618122, 120.970474


Provisor. Provider. Rural. Small island and adjacent creek in a strategical position in Ermita, where a thermal power plant was located during the second half of the 20th century. Its name derives from its role in distributing and supplying food and other essential goods during the Spanish period (see also Tanque).


Estero de Provisor. Creek. 14.5875399, 120.9893349

Isla de Provisor. Island. 14.5885212, 120.9887076


Puerta de Isabel II. Historical Building. Puerta de Isabel, Puerta de Isabela. 14.594243, 120.976291. Gate of Isabella II. Military. Gate built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period.


[Puerta de Santa Lucía] Puerta de Santa Lucia. Historical Building. 14.588432, 120.973682. Gate of Saint Lucy. Military. Gate built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period and reconstructed in 1982.


Puerta Real. Royal Gate. Military, Public Administration. Gate built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period, initially exclusive for the Spanish Governor-General.


Puerta Real. Historical Building. 14.586174, 120.9773509

Puerta Real Gardens. Historical Building, Park. 14.586185, 120.977585

[Revellín de la Puerta Real de Bagumbayan] Revellin de la Puerta Real de Bagumbayan. Historical Building. 14.585645, 120.977382. Ravelin of the Royal Gate of Bagumbayan. Military, Public Administration. Ravelin built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period; Bagumbayan is the Tagalog name given to a new settlement.


Quinta. Countryside Villa, Farm. Rural. Dock, market, and street in Quiapo supposedly close to an old farm or countryside villa (no longer existing), facing Estero de San Miguel (Estuary of Saint Michael) and the Pasig River.


Muelle de la Quinta. Port, Street. 14.595607, 120.984249. Rural, Working-class.

Quinta. Market. 14.596453, 120.982742


Quiricada. Hullabaloo. Another social function. Street in Santa Cruz. Daluyan (National Historical Institute (Philippines), 2006) states that it is an eponym (p. 90); however, it probably describes the busy area.


Quiricada. Bridge. 14.613293, 120.979578

Quiricada. Street. 14.6132602, 120.9801758


Real. Street. Calle Real del Parián [Old Name]. 14.590847, 120.976342. Royal. Public Administration. Street that crosses Intramuros from ‘Puerta de Santa Lucía’ (Gate of Saint Lucy) to ‘Puerta del Parian’ (Gate of the Market), the epithet Real refers to the Hispanic Monarchy and the Spanish Governor-General.


Reducto de San Francisco Javier. Historical Building. 14.592467, 120.970603. Stronghold of Saint Francis Xavier. Military. Stronghold built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period.


Reducto de San Pedro. Historical Building. 14.5864, 120.9744. Stronghold of Saint Peter. Military. Stronghold built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period.


Renta. Street. 14.599061, 120.974007. Income. Financial. Street in Binondo, not far from Ingreso. The name reflects historical financial activities in the district.


Reparo. Repair, Rest. Transport, Working-class. Long road and surrounding area at the border between Manila and Caloocan (I classified it under Caloocan). Its geographic nature, historical activities in the area, and location on the way to the north of Luzon, close to areas like Parada, Paso de Blas, or Potrero, relate this name to former transport routes.


Libis Reparo. Barangay. Barangay 161. 14.675383, 120.998236. Tagalog language Libis: Valley

Reparo. Road. 14.666113, 120.993183


[Retén] Reten. Street. 14.603724, 120.991275. Squad, Stock. Another social function. Street in Sampaloc that hosted a station of the Spanish Civil Guard.


[Revellín] Revellin. Street. 14.577231, 121.010996. Ravelin. Another social function. Street in Santa Ana with several ancestral houses and mansions whose name probably indicates that it originated from a roundabout.


[Revellín de Recoletos] Revellin de Recoletos. Historical Building. 14.58871268, 120.97955167. Ravelin of Recollects. Military. Ravelin built in the Intramuros wall during the Spanish period, close to the Recoletos Street and the now disappeared Recoletos church.


Rochas. Street. 14.773595, 121.067773. Clear Lands. Rural. Small street in Caloocan with small banana plantations. The place name refers to land cleared before cultivation.


[Sipac-Almacén] Sipac-Almacen. Barangay. 14.6565, 120.9468. Sipac-Warehouse. Working-class. Barangay in Navotas; Sipak is the Tagalog name for splint or splinter, and Almacen refers to the shipyards and fishing warehouses in the area.


Soda. Street. 14.597292, 120.978347. Soda water. Working-class. Street in Binondo where a soda water factory was located during the Spanish period.


Soldado. Street. 14.574275, 120.982232. Soldier. Military. Street leading to the Spanish and American barracks and military station in Malate.


Tanque (2). Tank, Water Tank. This name is given to two places. One refers to an area, creek, and street in Paco adjacent to the Pasig River whose geography, similarity with Tanque in Cavite, and surrounding place names like Provisor indicate the existence of a water tank that supplied vessels (Fish, 2011). The other place, spelled Tangke, is an area in Valenzuela where the battle of Malinta took place during the Philippine-American war — artillery pieces from that event were found in 2012 (Caiña, 2013).


Estero de Tanque. Creek. 14.5878, 120.9905. Estuary of Water Tank. Working-class.

Tangke. Residential Area. 14.686007, 120.965142. Military.

Tanque. Street. 14.586273, 120.9913471. Working-class.


Tinajeros. Earthenware Manufacturers. Working-class. Area and barangay in Malabon where pots were manufactured during the Spanish period, mainly to supply and store water and salt (Doeppers, 2016: 186, 254).


Iglesia Ni Cristo Lokal Ng Tinajeros. Religious Building. 14.670489, 120.966195. Church of Christ Locale of Earthenware Manufacturers

Tinajeros. Barangay. 14.6732763, 120.9689892

Tinajeros. Bridge. 14.673921, 120.963032

Tinajeros Day Care Center. Educational Building. 14.673665, 120.964295

Tinajeros Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.671273, 120.969973

Tinajeros National High School. Educational Building. 14.671782, 120.969795


Toneleros. Street. 14.598405, 120.97358. Coopers. Working-class. Small street in San Nicolas that connects ‘Muelle de Binondo’ (Dock of Binondo) and Barraca (Barracks). The name reflects the cargo activities and barrel manufacturing operations in the area.


Torre. Tower. Military. Two streets in Tondo, La Torre, and Torera, which held Moro pre-Hispanic fortifications; the adjacent Tagalog place name Mayhaligue refers to the wood pillars of those fortifications (Castro, 2019).


La Torre. Street. 14.58027, 121.01293

Torera. Street. 14.611439, 120.977947


Toro. Bull. Rural. Area in Quezon City, commonly known as Bahay Toro. In the past, it was a farming area where carabaos grazed and fed and was also a strategic point during the Philippine Revolution (Wikimapia, n.d.); Tagalog-language Bahay means House.


Bahay Toro. Avenue. 14.671528, 121.035167

Bahay Toro. Barangay. Toro Hills. 14.667, 121.0292

Bahay Toro. Fire Station. 14.664628, 121.021111

Bahay Toro. Park. Toro Hills. 14.664118, 121.021216

Bahay Toro Tennis Court. Sports Facilities. Toro Hills Tennis Court. 14.664081, 121.020614

Toro Hills. Barangay. Bahay Toro. 14.667, 121.0292

Toro Hills Elementary School. Educational Building. 14.665051, 121.020726

Toro Hills Sentrong Sila. Health Center. 14.6643, 121.0213

Toro Hills Tennis Court. Sports Facilities. Bahay Toro Tennis Court. 14.664081, 121.020614


Trabajo (3). Labor, Work. Working-class. A market in Sampaloc, a street in Makati, and a street in Malabon. The name is related to historical trade and manufacturing activities.


Trabajo. Market. 14.61, 120.996

Trabajo. Street. 14.574171, 121.02229

Trabajo. Street. 14.671069, 120.966458


Tres. Three. Transport. Third ferry terminal established to cross the Navotas River; this name is also used for its surrounding area.


Tres. Ferry Terminal. 14.667425, 120.945247

Tres. Market. Talipapa, F. Pascual. 14.666327, 120.942622


[Tuberías] Tuberias. Street. 14.602845, 121.023986. Pipelines. Another social function. Street in San Juan that hosted part of the old ‘Traída de Aguas’ (Water Supply Pipes) during the Spanish times.


[Vado] Badeo. Wading. Transport. Area and a series of small streets or alleys adjacent to the Navotas River ferry terminals to cross it; some of them have been renamed.


Badeo 2. Street. 14.663117, 120.946113

Badeo 5. Street. 14.672435, 120.937986


Varadero (2). Dry Dock. Working-class. Two streets in different areas of the Navota coast where vessels were constructed, repaired, and parked; the one with location 14.637757, 120.954517 is still in use.


Varadero. Street. 14.655531, 120.94809

[Varadero] Baradero. Street. 14.637757, 120.954517


Visita. Street. 14.567727, 121.01609. Visit. Another social function. Street and area in Makati that was a visita of Santa Ana de Sapa, i.e., an area with no priest that depended on the visits of neighboring priests for religious services (Makati City Government, n.d.).


Yunque. Street. 14.573388, 121.021279. Anvil. Working-class. Street in Makati where metal manufacturing activities were developed near a horse racecourse.


Zacateros. Street. 14.602505, 120.978487. Forage Dealers. Working-class. Street in Santa Cruz where forage dealers supplied fodder to horse carriages during the Spanish period.


Zapatero. Street. 14.6343711, 121.0939251. Shoemaker. Working-class. Street in Marikina that was a shoe manufacturing and leather production center supplying the Philippines since the end of the 19th century.


Zapote. Barangay, River. 14.469617, 120.968372. Sapote. Rural. Area, barangay, and river in Las Piñas, on the border between Metro Manila and Cavite. Farming land south of the capital city where Sapote plants thrived; other farming place names, like La Huerta or Las Piñas, are used in the zone. The toponym is extensively used over the area.


Appendix C. Maps



1898 De Gamoneda’s Map



1934 Map of the Young Men’s Christian Association (ymca)




Metro Manila’s Current Administrative Map (Adkranz, 2014)


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